Sino - Indian War

by   Ram Kumar

Sino Indian WarThe war between India and China occurred in 1962, for Border Conflict is known as Sino - Indian War.

Himalayan border is the main aspect of the war between two countries. In 20th October 1962, Chinese launched offensives in Ladakh as they unable to reach poltical accommodation in the Himalayan border. Chinese troops advances over Indian forces and capturing Rezang la in Chushul in western and Tawang in eastern theatre.

China and India shared a long border it consists of three stretches by Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan and a number of disputed region lies in this border. According to military doctrine, attacker generally requires 3:1 ratio defender of foot soldier required in warfare at mountains. Generally in high ranges of mountains contains high altitude and freezing whether conditions.

The Sino-Indian war is similar to Italian Campaign of World War I, many droops on both sides dying due to freezing cold. In 1951, according to James Barnard Calvin of U.S Navy, India started to send their troops to various disputed patrol areas and their main aim of the policy is to create outposts behind advancing Chinese troops to interdict their supplies forcing in the north region.

In beginning of 1961, Nehru appointed General B.M.Kaul as Army chief of general staff but he refused to increase military spending and prepare for possible war. General Kaul was confident through contact with Indian intelligence and CIA information that china would not react with force. Later Chinese force counter encircle the Indian position, so then two forces from engaging each other directly. In 23rd U.S assured China that a nationalist invasion would not be permitted.

Indian troops expect Chinese forces to cross via one of five bridges over the river and defended those crossings. Chinese troops crossed through south side of the river under cover of darkness and assign a battle in separate group of Rajputs. In morning 5:14 am, Chinese mortar fire began against Indian positions and simultaneously Chinese cut the Indian telephone lines, for preventing contact with headquarters. In 6.30 am, Chinese troops launched surprise attack the Indian force to leave their trenches. Fearful of continued losses, Indian troops escaped in to Bhutan.

In 23rd October morning, Indian discovered Chinese force gathered in cramped and opened fire with mortars and machine guns. Over 200 Chinese solider killed and wounded .Nine Indian soldiers were also killed. In 25th October Chinese soldiers began to close in, Sepoy Kewal Singh charged them with his bayonet and killed a few of them in hand-to-hand combat, but he himself was killed.

At Last war ended due to Chinese declared to ceasefire in 20th November 1962 and announced withdraws from the disputed areas.


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